• Muhammad Junaid Akram Physiotherapist
  • Suhail Karim
  • Amir Shahzad
  • Liaqat Ali Malik


Background: Congenital Talipes Equino-Varus is one of the deformities of the lower limb that is most prevalent among males. Many epidemiological studies are in progress/going on to know the exact cause, even though it is suggested that genetic and environmental factors (smoking) play central role in causing the disorder.

Objectives: To evaluate the trends of smoking, economic status, educational and ethnic background in parents of patients with Congenital Talipes Equino-Varus

Methodology: The study was a descriptive cross section survey carried out at PIPOS Rehabilitation Services Program (PRSP), Peshawar from April 2014 to May 2014. A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from participants. Only the patients with clubfoot were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using SPSS V20. 

Results: Number of the participants included in the study were n=107 and Mean age was 8.22± 6.10 years. 70 (65 %) participants were having bilateral clubfeet and 37 (35%) were unilateral clubfeet. There was not even a single participant whose mother did smoke but there were 47 (44%) participants whose father used to smoke during pregnancy. 4 (4%) of participants were having household smoking and 56 (52%) participants’ parents were not smoker. Data revealed that 69 (64%) of mothers were illiterate, 48 (48%) families of the participants were having average economic income, 81 (76%) of respondents were from rural area and 83 (78%) of respondent parents married within the family while 24 (22%) of respondent parents married outside the family.

Conclusion: This study clearly showed the trends of smoking among the family members of the clubfeet participants. Passive mother smoking, average income families, illiterate mothers and family marriages were common among clubfoot patients.

Key words: Club Foot; Maternal Smoking; foot deformities

How to Cite
AKRAM, Muhammad Junaid et al. TRENDS OF SMOKING AMONG THE PARENTS OF CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS PATIENTS. International Journal of Rehabilitation Sciences (IJRS), [S.l.], v. 7, n. 01, p. 16-19, june 2018. ISSN 2308-5363. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 july 2018.
Original Articles